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A full-term infant develops increased work of breathing, expiratory grunting, and nasal flaring within two hours of birth. Examination reveals mild cyanosis and subcostal chest retractions. Her respiratory rate is 70 breaths per minute and arterial blood gas measurements show moderate hypoxemia. A chest X-ray demonstrates increased lung volumes with flat diaphragms, perihilar streaking, and fluid in the interlobar fissures. Which of the following is a risk factor for this patient’s most likely diagnosis? Image credit: @karichards.